The rate at which conduction occurs is proportional to the thickness of the
material, the cross-sectional area over which it travels, the tmperature gradients between its surfaces,
and its thermal conductivity. Most gases, including air, are poor conductors, but effective insulators. Palziv foams reduce heat transfer by incorporating air-filled spaces, which has low thermal conductivity, rather than having the foam itself act as the barrier. This avoids negating its effectiveness if the foam abuts any material with high thermal conductivity, making Palziv foams suitable for the protection and packaging of electronic equipment, assemblies and other components.